Which of the following is suitable as a description of characteristics of a data-oriented approach?
a) An approach in which data related to a specific business process is systematized in order to improve development efficiency, since the systematization of a wide range of data is very labor-intensive.
b) An approach that proceeds from functional design to detailed design in order to minimize design changes while maintaining overall system integrity.
c) An approach in which a subject business process is partitioned into highly independent units, thereby improving design efficiency and allowing implementation in the partitioned units.
d) An approach in which data and data operations are integrated to form standard components, and these standard components are used to construct a system.